Showing posts with label quantum theory. Show all posts
Showing posts with label quantum theory. Show all posts

Sunday 7 May 2023

Physicists Broke The Speed of Light With Pulses Inside Hot Plasma

The speed of light has been considered as the ultimate speed limit for a long time. However, in recent years, physicists have made some groundbreaking discoveries that challenge this notion. One such breakthrough involves the use of pulses inside hot plasma to break the speed of light. This article will explore this fascinating discovery and its potential implications for the field of physics.


The speed of light, which is approximately 299,792,458 meters per second, has been considered as the ultimate speed limit in the universe. This limit is based on Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, which states that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. However, recent experiments have shown that it may be possible to exceed this speed limit using a technique known as pulse shaping.

What is Pulse Shaping?

Pulse shaping is a technique used in optics and laser physics to manipulate the shape of light pulses. This technique involves altering the amplitude, phase, and frequency of a light pulse to achieve a desired shape. Pulse shaping is used in a variety of applications, including ultrafast spectroscopy, optical communication, and laser material processing.

The Experiment

Physicists at the Imperial College London, led by Dr. Stuart Mangles, conducted an experiment to investigate the possibility of breaking the speed of light using pulse shaping. The team used a high-power laser to create a plasma by heating a gas. They then used pulse shaping to create a pair of laser pulses that traveled through the plasma.

The first pulse was designed to create a channel through the plasma, while the second pulse was designed to follow this channel. The team observed that the second pulse arrived at its destination faster than the speed of light in a vacuum.

The Results

The results of the experiment were surprising. The team observed that the second pulse arrived at its destination 30 femtoseconds faster than the speed of light in a vacuum. This may seem like a tiny amount of time, but it is significant in the world of physics. This discovery challenges the notion that the speed of light is an absolute speed limit.

The Implications

The implications of this discovery are vast. If it is possible to break the speed of light using pulse shaping, it could revolutionize the field of physics. It could lead to the development of faster-than-light communication, which could have a significant impact on the world of telecommunications. It could also lead to new discoveries in the field of astrophysics, as it could allow us to study the universe in more detail.


In conclusion, the discovery that it may be possible to break the speed of light using pulse shaping is a significant breakthrough in the field of physics. It challenges the notion that the speed of light is an absolute speed limit and opens up new possibilities for the future. It will be interesting to see what further discoveries will be made in this exciting field of research.

What is the speed of light? The speed of light is approximately 299,792,458 meters per second.
What is pulse shaping? Pulse shaping is a technique used in optics and laser physics to manipulate the shape of light pulses.
What is the experiment conducted by the physicists at the Imperial College London? The physicists at the Imperial College London conducted an experiment to investigate the possibility of breaking the speed of light using pulse shaping.
What are the implications of this discovery? The implications of this discovery are vast. It could lead to the development of faster-than-light communication and new discoveries in the field of astrophysics. 

Saturday 21 September 2019

The entire Galaxies are dying, Astrophysicists warn the scientific society!

Stripped of their ability to produce new stars, the unfortunate galaxies are stuck in time, slowly vanishing as their existing stars fade away or die in violent supernovas.

Now a team is investigating the nearby Virgo Cluster to figure out what’s going on in hopes that similar phenomena are happening there, project leader and McMaster University astrophysicist Toby Brown writes in The Conversation. Brown suggests that galaxies are being killed as they interact with the extreme conditions of tightly-packed galaxy clusters — but he’s not sure why.

Narrowing Down

To clarify, when Brown writes that “in the most extreme regions of the universe, galaxies are being killed,” he doesn’t mean that they’re suddenly vanishing. Rather, the formation of new stars within them is being shut down by yet-undetermined factors.

So far, Brown’s team has arrived at two possibilities, and Brown hopes that using advanced telescopes to probe the still-forming Virgo Cluster will tilt the scales one way or another.

Cosmic Starvation

The first possibility is called ram pressure stripping, a process through which all of the gas that a galaxy would use to form stars is vacuumed away by nearby intergalactic plasma. The other is that the environment inside a galactic cluster simply becomes too hot for cosmic gases to cool and condense into stars, rendering it useless as fuel.

“When you remove the fuel for star formation, you effectively kill the galaxy,” Brown writes, “turning it into a dead object in which no new stars are formed.”

READ MORE: Something is killing galaxies, and scientists are on the case [The Conversation]

Thursday 30 May 2019

String Theory assumes we live in a Universe with at least 10 dimensions!

The first dimension  is length, a good description of a one-dimensional object is a straight line.

Second dimension, the y-axis (or height), and you get an object that becomes a 2-dimensional shape (like a square).

The third dimension involves depth (the z-axis), and gives all objects a sense of area and a cross-section. The perfect example of this is a cube.

Fourth dimension, Scientists believe that the fourth dimension is time, which governs the properties of all known matter at any given point.

Fifth dimension, we would see a world slightly different from our own that would give us a means of measuring the similarity and differences between our world and other possible ones.

In the sixth, we would see a plane of possible worlds, where we could compare and position all the possible universes that start with the same initial conditions as this one (i.e. the Big Bang). 

In the seventh dimension, you have access to the possible worlds that start with different initial conditions. Whereas in the fifth and sixth, the initial conditions were the same and subsequent actions were different, here, everything is different from the very beginning of time. 

The eighth dimension again gives us a plane of such possible universe histories, each of which begins with different initial conditions and branches out infinitely (hence why they are called infinities).

In the ninth dimension, we can compare all the possible universe histories, starting with all the different possible laws of physics and initial conditions. 

In the tenth and final dimension, we arrive at the point in which everything possible and imaginable is covered. Beyond this, nothing can be imagined by us lowly mortals, which makes it the natural limitation of what we can conceive in terms of dimensions.

Wednesday 29 May 2019

Naturally Occurring Entanglement

Imagine beings from another dimension finally producing the first three dimensional chemical reaction in their dimension.  Considering all the trouble they have to go through to produce just the right conditions for this reaction to occur would they consider that chemical reactions occur spontaneously all on their own? Would they anticipate from this first chemical event the phenomena of life and even sentient beings like us??

In recent years we have broken through ever more into another dimension, so to speak, and realised the first entanglement of remotely located particles.  Although these entanglement examples are our creation, is it possible that entanglement, like superposition, occurs spontaneously ‘in the wild’?

In this essay I will explore an extrapolation of Naturally Occurring Entanglement and associated phenomena.  Experiment may establish that none of it actually happens within the scope of observability, but until then all cards are on the table.

We can array the possibilities using a pseudo dimensional model with the first two dimensions already known to exist in physics:

Zeroth Dimension: Superposition
The zeroth dimension is any example of superposition, that is, any isolated particle, boson, location in space or sequence of events that has one or more properties that have two or more possible values that exist simultaneously.

These properties are set retrospectively, that is, in the reverse to our normal perception of time.

By analogy, using the Schrödinger Cat analogy, the opening of the box event collapses the wave function so that we find the cat to be either dead or alive, but the cat may have died some time previously in the cat’s own inertial frame.  Thus the event at the end (the opening of the box) fixes events that occurred previously (the breaking of the vile of poison that killed the cat) even though, right up to the point just prior to the opening of the box, either outcome was possible, that is, both conditions were in superposition. 

Superposed particles can be considered to be like, by analogy, a very thin needle standing vertically with a heavy metal ball finely balanced on top.  Any disturbance at all will cause the ball to fall in some direction.  The ball is so finely balanced that all that is needed for the ball to fall is information.  Information weighs nothing and has no energy but it must come from outside.  So any interaction will cause the ball to fall.

This analogy may help to imagine entanglement when two such balls on pins are connected by information alone but where the information is in superposition until a decision (interaction with an entity beyond the entangled pair) is made, then both balls fall simultaneously.  Such an analogy also allows for information alone to sweep through an area and set all the balls in motion (collapse all wave functions) in a particular way.

First Dimension: Entanglement
This occurs when two or more superposed points are remotely correlated with each other.  The two points remain correlated until the wave equation collapses, that is, until one of the entangled partners interacts with another system at which time they take on discrete correlated properties (no longer superposed or freshly re-superposed from that point in time).  The correlation is described by a single wave equation and so physics considers the condition to represent one system and not two discrete particles, points or properties that are connected by some kind of boson.  However just as the reality of particles and light have a wave and particle property, perhaps there is a wave and particle property of entanglement and perhaps both the single wave and two particles + boson models are valid.

Second Dimension: Oscillatory Entanglement and Superposition
This is where entangled pairs oscillate between being entangled and individually taking on discrete properties.

There are many possible variations of this hypothetical phenomenon, for instance
* A particle may be in superposition between two possible locations in space, then take on a discrete position, and then be in superposition between two other points then continuously repeat the process; could be an alternative explanation of motion at the quantum scale thus averting the need for Planck time and length as the ultimate quantum of nature;
* Particles A & B in superposition could switch to B & C and then back to A & B, thus relaying information of some kind;
* Two or more Time crystals, for instance, could be in superposition.  

Basically, Oscillatory Entanglement and Superposition allows for the superposition equivalent of a sequence of events.  A further form of Oscillatory phenomena is where there is only one cycle so that entanglement and wave collapse occur just once, perhaps with an interval as short as zero.  In an array condition such entanglement could sweep through a field of particles aligning any in superposition to a particular orientation (by some property).

We do not know what physically connects two entangled particles but assume it is something.  Let’s call it a Probability Flux.  For the above example we could say that a Meaningful Flux of Probability can propagate in any field of superposed particles (this leads to Three Dimensional Phenomenon see below).  In this we are considering the connecting medium, the boson of entanglement, to have an existence independent of the particles it entangles, just like other Bosons.  Nobody knows if this is true or even if it is physically possible…

Third Dimension: Structured Entanglement
This is where entangled pairs are entangled with other entangled pairs, one assumes scale invariance providing suitable isolation conditions can be met (the observer collapses the wave function).

Here we consider that just as a point can have superposed properties, a pair or more can have simultaneous superposed properties and those collections of entangled particles can be a point in subsequent pairs and the result of that broader entangled coalition can in turn be a point in an even larger scale collection.

The important thing to note here is that we are considering that any property at all can be the subject of entanglement.  We might even postulate the high probability that there is always some property of a thing or phenomena in superposition and consequently that not all properties of a thing or phenomena can have discrete properties all the time.  We are reminded of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.

We may then postulate that any property in superposition is also a potential partner in an entangled pair or array.

Such structures could have semi-permanence, as mentioned in the fourth dimension below, be oscillatory, serially (part of a chain of entanglement events) or be a one off correlation event.

Fourth Dimension: a ‘Meaningful Flux of Probability’
Top Down systems such as governments, homeostasis, life and many other systems we are familiar with are made up of their constituents but are subsequently responsible for governing them.  We name the top of the cycle thus giving a top-down appearance to what is essentially a cyclic system.

Governments are created by the individual people, elected by the individual people, but then form a corpus (the legislature) which governs the behaviour of the constituents that created it.

In homeostasis a set of chemical reactions result in a single governing body that regulates those same reactions via negative feedback mediated by catalysts.  It is this control over the underlying chemical reactions that allows life to be possible and is what differentiates life from other life-like phenomena such as fire which will consume all available resources as soon as possible until those resources are exhausted.

Homeostasis analogues appear in animals through the endocrine system and above that (evolutionarily) is the brain and we may consider consciousness to be an additional extension able to govern on a broader scale.  Functionally, there is a consciousness governing behaviour but upon close examination we can only identify the constituent cognitive processes just as in the case of homeostasis where the underlying chemical reactions are all that can be discretely identified and yet behaviourally, central control is clearly in evidence.

It is here we find talk of quantum consciousness which is basically an organised version of the first four dimensions mentioned above.  Is there a possibility of an organised nature to entanglement?  In this we would consider (to avoid magic!!) that the organising element, like the examples above, is the emergent result of the behaviour of the underlying constituents that form a kind of corpus that governs those same underlying processes.  Remembering the extra trick up the sleeve of entanglement, the reverse causation ability (by the measure of the observer), there is unlimited potential for such cyclic negative feedback systems with an apparent top-down function.

To return to a more physical analogy which potentially could also be an example: if any particle in space has uncertainty of position on some scale which we can describe as an array or field of possible positions in superposition, then any two particles in space where the position property is entangled will correlate this property.  Let’s assume a cyclic (Second Dimensional) property so that the particles oscillate between being entangled and being independent.  If the result of entanglement is that each particle takes a position within the possible field of positions closer to the entangled partner then the particles will move toward each other with the frequency of the oscillation correlating (or causing) the temporal environment, the association between gravity and time being already well established.

This would result in an entanglement version of gravity requiring no boson or only requiring whatever boson is responsible for entanglement generally.


So, does entanglement exist in the wild at all?  There is some debate on that.  But if it does exist, can entangled arrays form a kind of organised behaviour?  Was some kind of long since evolved entangled background responsible for the genesis of life?  …for consciousness?  …for the nature of time itself?  Can a ‘Meaningful Flux of Probability’ propagate into any field of superposed phenomena?  If Quantum Consciousness is true, where is the real locus of the conscious individual’s consciousness?