Tuesday 24 October 2023

Is ChatGPT smarter than a Doctor ?


The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare has raised both eyebrows and expectations. While AI offers promise for automating routine tasks and data analysis, questions about its applicability in nuanced medical practices persist. A recent study presented at the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Annual Conference 2023 brought these questions into sharp focus. The research revealed that ChatGPT failed the UK's National Primary Care examinations. So, what does this mean for the future of AI in healthcare, particularly in the complex realm of primary care?

Shathar Mahmood and Arun James Thirunavukarasu, two Indian junior doctors from UK, led a team to examine ChatGPT's performance using the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners Applied Knowledge Test. This is a part of the UK’s specialty training for becoming a general practitioner (GP). It's a multiple-choice assessment that tests the knowledge required for general practice within the context of the UK's National Health Service (NHS). The algorithm's overall performance was slightly below par, scoring 10% less than the average RCGP pass mark in recent years.

The study highlights the limitations of AI when it comes to making complex medical decisions. Sandip Pramanik, a GP from Watford, noted that the study "clearly showed ChatGPT's struggle to deal with the complexity of the exam questions." In essence, the limitations of ChatGPT lie in its inability to grasp the intricate web of human factors involved in medical decision-making, something that general practitioners are trained extensively to handle. 

Interestingly, the study also found that ChatGPT can generate 'hallucinations,' or novel explanations, which are inaccurate but presented as factual. This is concerning as non-experts would not be able to discern these hallucinations from actual facts. Hence, the risk of misinformation increases, particularly in an age when medical advice is frequently sought online. 

My Concluding Thoughts

So, does AI have a future in healthcare? Certainly. But replacing human clinicians in primary care? Probably not anytime soon. Mahmood succinctly stated that larger and more medically specific datasets are needed to improve AI systems' accuracy in this field. This suggests that while AI has its place in healthcare, that place is not in the replacement of human decision-making complexity and nuance. Instead, it serves as a tool that can assist but not usurp the role of healthcare professionals.

Let's remember, healthcare is not just about data points and binary answers; it’s about understanding the intricate nuances of human emotions, conditions, and complexities, something AI is far from mastering.

-  Krishna Nair

Wednesday 20 September 2023

Is Elon Musk's Proposed "Small Fee" for Twitter a Game-Changer or a Gamble?


In a digital landscape where most social media platforms are free to access, Elon Musk's recent announcement about charging users for Twitter has stirred the pot quite substantially. The Tesla and SpaceX founder revealed his plans during a live-streamed conversation with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. While some argue that this bold move could combat the "vast armies of bots," others express concerns that it could be Twitter's undoing. Let's delve into the details and weigh the pros and cons.

The Genesis of the Idea

During his chat with Netanyahu, Musk disclosed that he's mulling over introducing a "small monthly payment" for Twitter users. His rationale? It would escalate the operational costs for bots and make it impractical for them to spam the platform. On the surface, it appears like a sound strategy to enhance the platform's integrity, but is it?

A Closer Look at the Figures

According to expert analyses, a mere 827,000 of Twitter's 540 million monthly users have subscribed to the platform's current paid service. These numbers pose an unavoidable question: Will users be willing to pay for something they have long enjoyed for free? The stats don't seem promising, but then again, Musk has defied odds before.

Public Sentiment: Mixed Reviews

Social media is buzzing with differing viewpoints on this controversial decision. "I'd sooner pay for oxygen than for this app," stated one user, echoing a sentiment that many seem to share. Yet others argue that a nominal fee could enhance the quality of interactions on the platform. Some even jest that they would willingly pay if Musk hands over control to Dolly Parton and terminates his own account.

The Bot Question: Solved or Not?

While Musk believes a small fee would deter bots, critics argue that many spam accounts already incur expenses to stay operational. Charging a fee may not necessarily eliminate the bot problem but could discourage genuine users from engaging with the platform.

Financial Implications

Twitter, under Musk's ownership, hasn't exactly been a money-making machine. Could this "small fee" be the financial adrenaline shot the platform needs? Or could it drive users away, exacerbating the platform's financial woes?

Conclusion: A Paradigm Shift or a Folly?

Elon Musk has never been one to shy away from shaking up established norms. But is a "small fee" the innovative solution Twitter needs, or could it be

Monday 31 July 2023

Snoring Could Be Harming Your Brain

Snoring and Your Brain: What the Nightly Rumble May Mean for Your Brain Health


Do you snore, or know someone who does? While it may be a source of light-hearted teasing or frustration within a family, the implications of snoring could be far more serious than we think. Recent research from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris-Cité suggests that habitual snorers might be fast-forwarding the aging process of their brains and inadvertently compromising their brain health.

The underlying factor in the harm caused by snoring is the deprivation of deep sleep, the phase of sleep crucial for physical and mental restoration. The study finds that the regular, loud snorers with obstructed breathing, often the tell-tale signs of sleep apnea, stand at higher risk of developing symptoms of grave conditions like stroke, Alzheimer's disease, or general cognitive decline. 

The evidence for this alarming theory lies in the presence of tiny lesions on the brain, known as white matter hyperintensities. These biomarkers give an indication of the brain's health status and are more prevalent with age or uncontrolled high blood pressure. However, these lesions appeared more abundantly in participants with severe sleep apnea compared to those with mild or moderate conditions. This suggests a correlation between the severity of sleep-disordered breathing and the state of the brain's health.

Astonishingly, the study found that for every 10% decrease in deep sleep, there was an increase in these white matter hyperintensities, equivalent to the brain aging 2.3 years. This process signifies a decrease in the integrity of the axons, the elongated part of a nerve cell that allows communication between cells. Alarmingly, the same 10% reduction of deep sleep was also associated with reducing the integrity of these axons, leading to an effect similar to the brain appearing 3 years older.

This groundbreaking research emphasises the importance of quality sleep and paints a grim picture of the potential implications of untreated snoring. However, as the understanding of the relationship between snoring, deep sleep, and brain health continues to evolve, individuals have the opportunity to take control of their sleep health.

So, if you or a loved one is a chronic snorer, consider seeking professional medical advice. Simple lifestyle changes, or in more severe cases, medical interventions, could not only lead to quieter nights but also contribute significantly to preserving your cognitive health. In essence, protecting your sleep could mean protecting your brain, and that's something worth losing a little sleep over.

Monday 12 June 2023

The Role of Multivitamins in Memory Boost and Slowing Cognitive Aging


We've all heard the adage, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away," but recent research suggests that a multivitamin might be a worthwhile addition to our daily routine. A study co-authored by Dr. JoAnn Manson, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, has offered some enlightening insights into the benefits of daily multivitamin supplementation, particularly for older adults.

The research is part of the second Cocoa Supplement and Multivitamins Outcome Study (COSMOS), a collaborative effort between Brigham and Columbia University. The findings, which have been published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggest that regular multivitamin intake can not only enhance memory but also slow cognitive aging.

Nutrition and Cognitive Health

The human brain requires an array of nutrients to function optimally. Deficiencies in certain micronutrients, such as vitamin B12, thiamin, other B vitamins, lutein, magnesium, and zinc, can accelerate cognitive decline, hence emphasizing the importance of a nutritionally balanced diet for maintaining brain health.

In the trial, 3500 participants aged 60 or older took part in a web-based memory test. Those in the multivitamin group outperformed the placebo group in memory tests and word recall, an outcome that's roughly equivalent to slowing age-related memory loss by about three years. The benefits were noticeable from the first year and lasted throughout the three-year trial duration.

Multivitamins and Cardiovascular Health

An intriguing pattern that emerged from the COSMOS trial, as well as the earlier COSMOS-Mind study, was that participants with a history of cardiovascular disease showed the most significant improvement from multivitamin supplementation. This improvement could potentially be due to their lower initial nutrient status, but this area needs further exploration.

A Balanced Perspective

Despite the promising findings, Dr. Manson stressed that multivitamins are not a magic bullet. They should complement a healthy diet and lifestyle, not replace them. It's also crucial to remember that the trials tested recommended dietary allowances, not megadoses of micronutrients. High doses might not only lack the same cognitive benefits, but they might also lead to toxicity or interfere with the absorption of other nutrients.

Safety and Quality

The multivitamins used in the trial, including Centrum Silver, were found to be safe, without any clear risks or safety concerns. Importantly, Dr. Manson clarified that these benefits are not brand-specific; other high-quality multivitamins should also confer similar advantages. As a rule of thumb, consumers should always check for quality-control documentation, such as seals from the US Pharmacopeia, National Science Foundation, ConsumerLab.com, or other auditors.

Looking to the Future

This research offers an exciting glimpse into the potential benefits of multivitamin supplementation as a safe, accessible, and affordable approach to protecting cognitive health in older adults. Yet, there's more work to be done. Future research needs to pinpoint who is most likely to benefit and delve deeper into the biological mechanisms involved. It's also up to expert committees to evaluate the research and determine whether changes in nutritional guidelines are warranted.

In summary, a daily multivitamin could be a small addition to our routines with potentially significant benefits for our cognitive health. Yet, it should serve as a complementary strategy to a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle, not a substitute. As always, remember to discuss any new supplements with a healthcare provider to ensure they're right for your personal health situation.

Friday 19 May 2023

18 Things You Need to Stop Doing If You Want to Be Successful.

1. Running from problems.
Sooner or later, you will run out of places to run to. Confront your problems and get it over with.

2. Cursing the darkness.
We all have struggles and failures, but if you can focus your energy on a solution--even a small one--you've started the process of finding your way out.

3. Lying to yourself.
The truth really does set you free. The beliefs and thoughts that limit your options aren't representing your truth, and they're keeping you from realizing your visions.

4. Fear.
It is human nature to feel fear, and most of us tend to fear what we don't understand. If you can understand your fears, you can free yourself from them.

5. Negativity.
Focus on yourself with optimism and positivity instead of dwelling on the things that are holding you back.

6. The word impossible.
There's no bigger impediment to any achievement than not trying at all, or trying and giving up.

7. Winging it.
Success favors those who work hard, put in plenty of time, and do whatever it takes to make it work. When you do your part, success has a way of showing up.

8. Cynicism.
Human understanding and kindness are at the core of the happiest people.

9. Distraction.
Stop wasting your time chasing shiny objects and focus on what you really need in your life.

10. Selfishness.
A truly successful life is made of giving, sharing, and praise, not taking, demanding, and criticizing.

11. Overthinking.
Stop overthinking everything because that just makes things worse. Think good thoughts and good things will happen.

12. Hoarding.
Any form of hoarding is unhealthy and wastes your time, whether it's possessions, information, wisdom, or emotion.

13. Denial.
Look at your life and ask yourself whether what you are doing is truly representing what's within you; if not, stop denying what you really want and need.

14. Criticism.
It's easy to criticize, but it's rarely helpful. Praise is far more powerful and rewarding for everyone all around.

15. Comparison.
Remember, everyone has a unique situation and is fighting their own battles. Stop comparing yourself to others, it's never productive.

16. Procrastination.
There's no bigger waste of time than putting things off--it adds stress and takes away options for solving problems.

17. Complaining.
Taking responsibility today is the first step in accomplishing something great tomorrow.

18. Perfection.
Remember, those who seldom make mistakes seldom make discoveries. Instead of searching for perfection, take this moment and make it perfect.

And, above all, stop squandering your gifts. This life is about making yourself useful and necessary, so find your purpose and run with it.

Who knows what you'll find time for when you let go of all the time-wasting negatives in your life?

Thursday 11 May 2023

Intellectual Characters


Throughout history many intellectuals have shown astoundingly high IQ's though this is the case many look to fictional portrayals of intellectuals through TV shows, Movies, Books and Anime instead of nonfictional collections of information about said intellectuals in time. I must admit I am one of those people as I have been fascinated with humans that have high IQ's, but I prefer to see content gathered and utilised within the multitude of innovative creations being brought to life through media.

Accuracy in the portrayal of characters with high IQ's might be hard to justify as anything fictional is just that 'fictional'. In most of my time I have escaped reality and seen much fictional material throughout my life and of such have thought about the many aspects regarding this question quite a bit, in my honest opinion the main issue in portrayal is human diversity which occurs through the many factors in ones life relating to nature and nurture. IQ is only one facet of one's overall intelligence and most portrayals in media reveal a diverse array of personalities stemming from not only IQ but EQ.

Now when you refer to IQ in your question do you mean to disregard or regard to the many other facets of intelligence such as EQ? Either way it is included within the many portrayals in media as they cannot only have an intelligent character whom has a high IQ without showing the many other facets. Now a high IQ is commonly known to be above 160 that is around Einstein's level, and an Intelligence Quotient is: "A number representing a person’s reasoning ability" (measured using problem-solving tests) as compared to the statistical norm or average for their age, taken as 100. According to the definition by - intelligence quotient (the oxford dictionary)

In Conclusion, though there are many portrayals through many mediums and the characters vary in personalities they all have great talents in certain fields, a high IQ helps one become an intellectual genius but does not guarantee success. Because of this vast range of portrayals the best way to discern the way a person with a high IQ thinks and acts is to watch / read a lot of variations to reveal the common attributes and make concise conclusions on the matter.

Healing Hands in Danger: The Plight of Violence Against Doctors

Doctors are healers, with hands that mend
But sadly, we face violence in the end
They work hard to cure the sick and frail
But some people's actions are beyond the pale

Doctor’s job is to save lives, to ease the pain
But their efforts are often met with disdain
Assaults on doctors are becoming a trend
A grave injustice that we must attend

The Hippocratic Oath they take to heart
A promise to do their best from the start
But when violence occurs, it breaks them apart
Their passion for healing becomes a lost art

We must protect our doctors, who care for us all
And ensure their safety, so they can answer the call
Violence against them is an affront to us all
Let's stand together and answer the call

For doctors are your guardians, your protectors in need
“You must show us the respect we truly deserve to receive”
Let's unite in this cause, and put an end to this violence
So the doctors can heal and restore our reliance

Sunday 7 May 2023

My religion is love and kindness

In a world where beliefs divide,
I found solace in a different stride.
For I, a wanderer in this vast expanse,
Dared to question the gods' eternal dance.

Religion's chains no longer bind,
Yet kindness and compassion I still find.
In the depths of my skeptical soul,
A spirit of benevolence takes its toll.

No rituals or doctrines to guide my way,
But empathy remains, come what may.
For in the absence of divine decree,
Love's essence still resides in me.

I cast away the dogmas and creeds,
Embracing the plight of those in need.
With open arms, I lend a listening ear,
To stories untold, to hearts that fear.

No prayers or hymns adorn my lips,
But words of solace, like gentle ships,
Sail through troubled waters, seeking peace,
Bringing comfort and granting release.

I reject the notion of a higher throne,
Yet kindness in my heart has grown.
For in the absence of heavenly might,
I choose to be a beacon of light.

In every action, a testament I weave,
That one can care without belief.
My purpose forged in the love I give,
A testament to the way I live.

Though faith may falter, my spirit's pure,
A testament to love that shall endure.
No religion binds, no creed to tether,
For kindness is my bond, now and forever.

Physicists Broke The Speed of Light With Pulses Inside Hot Plasma


The speed of light has been considered as the ultimate speed limit for a long time. However, in recent years, physicists have made some groundbreaking discoveries that challenge this notion. One such breakthrough involves the use of pulses inside hot plasma to break the speed of light. This article will explore this fascinating discovery and its potential implications for the field of physics.


The speed of light, which is approximately 299,792,458 meters per second, has been considered as the ultimate speed limit in the universe. This limit is based on Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, which states that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. However, recent experiments have shown that it may be possible to exceed this speed limit using a technique known as pulse shaping.

What is Pulse Shaping?

Pulse shaping is a technique used in optics and laser physics to manipulate the shape of light pulses. This technique involves altering the amplitude, phase, and frequency of a light pulse to achieve a desired shape. Pulse shaping is used in a variety of applications, including ultrafast spectroscopy, optical communication, and laser material processing.

The Experiment

Physicists at the Imperial College London, led by Dr. Stuart Mangles, conducted an experiment to investigate the possibility of breaking the speed of light using pulse shaping. The team used a high-power laser to create a plasma by heating a gas. They then used pulse shaping to create a pair of laser pulses that traveled through the plasma.

The first pulse was designed to create a channel through the plasma, while the second pulse was designed to follow this channel. The team observed that the second pulse arrived at its destination faster than the speed of light in a vacuum.

The Results

The results of the experiment were surprising. The team observed that the second pulse arrived at its destination 30 femtoseconds faster than the speed of light in a vacuum. This may seem like a tiny amount of time, but it is significant in the world of physics. This discovery challenges the notion that the speed of light is an absolute speed limit.

The Implications

The implications of this discovery are vast. If it is possible to break the speed of light using pulse shaping, it could revolutionize the field of physics. It could lead to the development of faster-than-light communication, which could have a significant impact on the world of telecommunications. It could also lead to new discoveries in the field of astrophysics, as it could allow us to study the universe in more detail.


In conclusion, the discovery that it may be possible to break the speed of light using pulse shaping is a significant breakthrough in the field of physics. It challenges the notion that the speed of light is an absolute speed limit and opens up new possibilities for the future. It will be interesting to see what further discoveries will be made in this exciting field of research.

What is the speed of light? The speed of light is approximately 299,792,458 meters per second.
What is pulse shaping? Pulse shaping is a technique used in optics and laser physics to manipulate the shape of light pulses.
What is the experiment conducted by the physicists at the Imperial College London? The physicists at the Imperial College London conducted an experiment to investigate the possibility of breaking the speed of light using pulse shaping.
What are the implications of this discovery? The implications of this discovery are vast. It could lead to the development of faster-than-light communication and new discoveries in the field of astrophysics. 

Sunday 23 April 2023

Had COVID? Part of the Virus May Stick Around in Your Brain


If you or someone you know is experiencing "brain fog" after COVID-19, scientists now have a possible explanation — and it might not bring much comfort.

Researchers in Germany found that part of the virus, the spike protein, remains in the brain long after the virus clears out.


These investigators discovered the spike protein from the virus in brain tissue of animals and people after death. The finding suggests these virus fragments build up, stick around, and trigger inflammation that causes long COVID symptoms.

About 15% of COVID patients continue to have long-term effects of the infection despite their recovery, said senior study author Ali Ertürk, PhD, director of the Institute for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine at the Helmholtz Center Munich in Germany.


Reported neurological problems include brain fog, brain tissue loss, a decline in thinking abilities, and problems with memory, he said.

"These symptoms clearly suggest damages and long-term changes caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the brain, the exact molecular mechanisms of which are still poorly understood," Ertürk said.


The researchers also propose a way the spike protein can get into the brain in their preprint report published online before peer review April 5 on bioRxiv.

Delivered by circulating blood, the spike protein can stay inside small openings in the bone marrow of the skull called niches. It can also reside in the meninges, thin layers of cells that act as a buffer between the skull and the brain. From there, one theory goes, the spike protein uses channels to enter the brain itself.

The hope is researchers can develop treatments that block one or more steps in this process and help people avoid long COVID brain issues.


'Very Concerning'

"This is a very concerning report that literally demonstrates the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the skull-meninges-brain axis in postmortem individuals," said Eric Topol, MD, director of the Scripps Research Translational Institute in La Jolla, CA, and editor-in-chief of Medscape, WebMD's sister site for medical professionals.

Having the spike protein accumulate in structures right outside the brain and causing ongoing inflammation makes sense to Topol. The clustering of spike proteins would trigger an immune response from this niche reservoir of immune cells that cause the inflammation associated with long COVID and the symptoms such as brain fog, he said.


Problems with thinking and memory after COVID infection are relatively common. One research team found 22% of people with long COVID specifically reported this issue, on average, across 43 published studies. Even people who had mild COVID illness can develop brain fog later, Ertürk and colleagues note.


So why are researchers blaming the spike protein and not the whole COVID virus? As part of the study, they found SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in some people after death and not in others, suggesting the virus does not need to be there to trigger brain fog. They also injected the spike protein directly into the brains of mice and showed it can cause cells to die.

Researchers also found no SARS-CoV-2 virus in the brain parenchyma, the functional tissue in the brain containing nerve cells and non-nerve (called glial) cells, but they did detect the spike protein there.

Surprising Findings

Investigators were surprised to find spike protein in the skull niches of people who survived COVID and died later from another cause. Ertürk, lead author and PhD student Zhouyi Rong, and their colleagues found spike protein in 10 of 34 skulls from people who died from non-COVID causes in 2021 and 2022.


They also found COVID can change how proteins act in and around the brain. Some of these proteins are linked to Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but have never before been linked to the virus

Another unexpected finding was how close the findings were in mice and humans. There was a "remarkable similarity of distribution of the viral spike protein and dysregulated proteins identified in the mouse and human samples," Ertürk said.

Future Treatments?

Tests for protein changes in the skull or meninges would be invasive but possible compared to sampling the parenchyma inside the brain. Even less invasive would be testing blood samples for altered proteins that could identify people most at risk of developing brain complications after COVID illness.

It will take more brain science to get there. "Designing treatment strategies for these neurological symptoms requires an in-depth knowledge of molecules dysregulated by the virus in the brain tissues," Ertürk said.